Friday, June 5, 2020
Traditional ideals, particularly in Asian culture value male superiority in the household whilst the women, has to assume secondary roles in the family. Confucianism as the foundation of most Asian regions since the Han dynasty in China has defined the mainstream discourse on gender onwards. The Three Obediences and Four Virtues defining the social codes for a virtuous woman and specific gender roles became the cornerstone of the kinfolk and society in general. Consequently, the majorly patriarchal ideologies in Confucianism has been regarded as sexist and historically damaging to Asian women. In Duong Thu HuongÃ¢â¬â¢s Paradise of the Blind the motif of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity being defined for them is explored through the three main female characters from two generations Hang, Que (HangÃ¢â¬â¢s mother) and Aunt Tam. The bildungsroman narrative focuses on HangÃ¢â¬â¢s character charting her progression from a submissive girl to familial and cultural expectations to an individual who develops a fuller sense of who she is. HangÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Que as a stereotypical character fits into the traditional side of Vietnamese society while the character Aunt Tam defies gender roles. Que suffers from the clutches of Confucian ideologies in that she is subjugated to the traditional female roles and familial loyalty that puts the male interests as the priority always. Whilst Aunt Tam despite defying the roles also suffers as an educated woman since she is not perceived by men as desirable, moreover, she is entangled in familial obligations to the dead. The Confucian ideologies teac h that a virtuous woman obeys the men in the family; the father in childhood and before marriage; the spouses after they marry; and their sons in widowhood. Furthermore, social stigmas were placed on factors such as remarriage or education for women leading to the decline of status of woman. Thus, through the Vietnam backdrop, Huong expresses the suffering of women under Confucian ideologies due to the traditional gender roles, familial duties and loyalty, and societal expectations. Through the female characters, Huong highlights their suffering under Confucian ideologies through the traditional roles that warrant self-abnegation and self-sacrifice. Que asserts Ã¢â¬Å"To live with dignity, the important thing is never to despair. You give up once, and everything gives way. They say ginger root becomes stringy but pungent with age. Unhappiness forges a woman, makes her selfless, compassionateÃ¢â¬ (HÃ °Ã ¡ng). Que continually accentuated the act of being self-sacrificing as a woman in Vietnamese culture according to the maxims and traditional practices of Confucianism. As a street vendor in Hanoi only making measly earnings, Que takes pride in the suffering in which traditions have enacted upon them. She fortifies Hang to express the same kind of selflessness showing the extent to which generations of women are bound to the traditional roles. The teachings threat female autonomy as mothers convey the ideals of passivity and subjection in the Vietnamese cultur e. At a young age after witnessing a peasant woman vending barley sugar Hang ponders, Ã¢â¬Å"I was mesmerized by her huge, splayed feetÃ¢â¬ ¦scored with tiny cracks, encrusted with gray patches of dead skin. Decades before her, another woman, just like herÃ¢â¬ ¦plodded along with the same feetÃ¢â¬ (HÃ °Ã ¡ng). Huong highlights that peasant women have been trapped in traditions which exacted extreme hard work and great suffering from them, and are passed down from mother to daughter. Furthermore Hang watches as her mother, Que, honors his brother and blinded by her loyalty to him even at times neglecting her own daughter. Consequently, women around Hang specifically Que and Aunt Tam lead lives that are dependent on honoring the patriarchy and the dead thus suffer through familial loyalty and duties. As Hang is welcomed at the ancestral home as the heir she feels Ã¢â¬Å"as if I were drinking to some solemn, merciless vow, some sacred, primitive riteÃ¢â¬ (HÃ °Ã ¡ng). Hang alludes to the self-sacrificing familial loyalties she has witnessed through her mother and her foster mother, Aunt Tam and she is unsure of adopting the same position. Hang witnesses QueÃ¢â¬â¢s self-denying steps of devotion to her brother Chinh and her Aunt TamÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty from the bitterness of her wronged family. Throughout HangÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, Que is portrayed as consumed in servicing her only remaining family, her brother Chinh; she struggles and suffers to provide for his family which also entails two sons. The Three Obediences of Confucianism asserts that the maiden or married woman has an obligation to the male s in the family her entire life. Thus, Que even neglects her own daughter to cater to his remaining brother and his sons as males are considered more important. The shackles of familial loyalty are also seen through Aunt Tam who is devoted to continuing the bloodline and tending to the wrongdoings imparted on her dead family. She even supports HangÃ¢â¬â¢s studies not for her sake but in order to honor the memory of her grandfather and father. In traditionalist Vietnam culture, the people are defined by the rules set by their preceding generations hence the living must serve the dead. Hang who intends to separate from the bounds of familial devotions asserts, Ã¢â¬Å"We can honor the wishes of the dead with a few flowers on a grave somewhere. I cant squander my life tending Ã¢â¬ ¦ shadows, the legacy of past crimesÃ¢â¬ (HÃ °Ã ¡ng). By the end of the novel, she realizes that this path will not bring her happiness and takes the risk to leave behind her familial duties in pursuit of her own happiness. Additionally, Huong suggests that women in Vietnam have to fit a very specific criterion to be considered a real and virtuous woman, eligible for marriage. Hang states, Ã¢â¬Å"My aunt was very beautiful but since she was educated and aloof she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to find a husbandÃ¢â¬ (HÃ °Ã ¡ng). It suggests that the sole role of a virtuous woman is to get married and domesticity, any other endeavors are against societal expectations. Being educated is frowned upon rather than celebrated. Moreover, the assertion suggests that the woman should only be beautiful and nothing else. Aunt Tam as an educated woman and aloof individual are main reasons she fails to attract a husband. In traditionalist Vietnamese culture, women have to abide by certain standards and social codes placed by centuries-old ideologies. Henceforth, women who subvert the norms but are still traditionalists, in essence, suffer the wrath of the ideologies. Essentially, the reasons why HangÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to subvert the traditions is followed by complete detachment from the culture. Accordingly, Huong illustrates the suffering of Vietnamese women under Confucian ideologies as a result of its traditional gender roles, familial devotion and loyalty, and cultural expectations. Huong explores this motif by describing HangÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle against following the customs and being unhappy and broken and her quest to find happiness. Through her eyes, the customs has subjugated her mother Que and other peasant women into a life of self-sacrifice, unhappiness, and self-abnegation. The traditionalist culture fosters the veneration of the patriarchy and the dead at the expense of the women preventing thinking for oneself if one is female. The rigid social codes for women also nurtures an unfortunate life for women who challenge the norms while still imbued with the ideologies. Fundamentally, the thoughts allow for patriarchal devaluation and oppression through the obligations and expectations they demand from women. Work Cited HÃ °Ã ¡ng, DÃ °Ã ¡ng Thu. Paradise of the Blind. 1988. Web.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Compare and contrast the role of women at home during World War I and World War II. Before World War I and World War II, women at home had the roles of maintaining duties for their family and children, such as cleaning, caring for the house, and cooking for the family. They were more likely judged by their exquisiteness rather than their ability. Just before World War I began, women were beginning to break away from the traditional roles they had played at home. Throughout both World Wars, women in the United States faced similar challenges, however, during the Second World War; women were trusted with much more freedom and responsibility than they had in the First World War. In comparison, the first and second World WarsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦At the time of World War one, the Young Women Christian Association (YWCA), Patriotic League, and the Red Cross organizations were made to help the war efforts. The Red Cross for example, allowed women to work and help the war effort as nurses. As women were not seen to work in higher praised jobs that only men could do, they proved themselves to be as skilled if not more during World War one. Women worked in industries and their development was drastically spoken about in newspapers and articles. There successes and skilled efforts was commended and was beginning to change the minds of men who thought women were incapable. Women, during World War one, replaced men in skillful jobs such as railroad workers, and other machine operators. During the beginning of World War one, women were seen as incapable of holding professional jobs that men took. However, demonstrating their efforts in factories and hel ping the war effort showed the capability of women to work in any job that was traditionally for women. Throughout World War one, women gained the positions of being doctors, lawyers, and bankers. These job opportunities during World War one gave women a chance to show the male-dominated society that they were proficient and were able to more than staying at home and raising their children. Throughout World War one, women had played a vital role in helping the war and its soldiers. Women also played a key role in helping the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Manual versus Computerized Accounting Ever since Lucas Pacioli wrote about and spread the knowledge of double entry accounting in his Ã¢â¬Å"Summa di ArithemeticaÃ¢â¬ in 1494, modern manual accounting was born (Hendrickson, 2007), though manual accounting has existed in many forms since ancient times. In contrast, computerized accounting systems are a more modern invention, as the first computer was invented between 1943 and 1946 (Ã¢â¬Å"Great Events in Accounting amp; Business HistoryÃ¢â¬ , (n.d.)) and Arthur Anderson first computerized the payroll of General Electric in 1953 (Ã¢â¬Å"Great Events in Accounting amp; Business HistoryÃ¢â¬ , (n.d.)). Powerful personal computers were not readily available to the average person until the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. ManualÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Computerized accounting systems have advantages. They can increase the speed and efficiency of the accounting process and can be less labor intensive owing to the automation of many functions like journalization a nd calculation. Performing the summation of all the individual transactions entered is automated and printing financial statements from the data is quick and easy. Although there may be data entry errors, these may be easier to find in a computerized system, and there should be no transcription error as the computer performs the transcription for you. Computerized accounting systems, since they can easily handle large numbers of transactions with ease, are more practical for large companies with a large volume of transactions. Lastly, one advantage IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen with computerized accounting is the generation of financial statements at any time during the accounting cycle, if you wish to do this. With manual accounting, this is labor and time intensive and impractical. Computerized accounting systems are not without their disadvantages, though. For example, many small businesses donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot of start-up capital and most computerized accounting systems are somewhat cost-prohibitive for them. They are dependent upon computers with all the attendant problems that can come with that Ã¢â¬â power outages, viruses, data security, and computer fraud. I believe, as well, that theShow MoreRelatedComputerized vs. Manual Accounting1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrepared For : Mr. Nelson Title: | Computerized Accounting should completely replaces Manual AccountingPrepared By : Ali H. Al-MuslimID#: 200628620Section# : 05SN#: 02Group#:01Word Count:1,333 | 10/7/2012 10/7/2012 Table of Contents Table of Contents II Introduction 3 I. Manual Accounting 4 A. Benefits 4 1. Cost effective 4 2. Availability 4 B. Limitations 4 1. Finding Errors 4 2. Time Factor 5 II. Computerized Accounting 5 A. Benefits 5 1. Speed 5 2Read MoreBenefits Of Using A Computerized Accounting System1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesindependent CPA, and accounting software consultant, has several clients in her practice located in Louisville, Kentucky. XYZ Company has used the same journal and ledger manual system for more than twenty years. On the other hand, other small, medium and large business clients prefer an automated accounting system because of the advantages. In the end, independent accountants serve multiple types and sized businesses. Which accounting system is the best in a public accounting (CPA) environment;Read MoreInformation Technology and Its Significance in the Accounting Profession in TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Modern Society2847 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesA Library Research on INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION IN TODAYÃ¢â¬â¢S MODERN SOCIETY Presented to Elizabeth D. Kapulong, MA.Ed UST-AMV College of Accountancy As a partial requirement to complete the course, English 3 Prepared by The Tributes Members: Sahagun, Abbie Rose R. Pelaez, Angelica Marie, Cantoria, Gabrielle Alcid, Ariane Santiago Steffany August 22, 2012 ABSTRACT Table of Contents I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND 4 ARead MoreChallenges and Opportunities of Computerized Accounting System6101 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesChallenges and Opportunities of Computerized Accounting System Ahmed Qaalib Ismail BCom BIT Reg.No: HK-MBA-01411 This Thesis submitted to Kampala University Impartial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Master of Business Administration Kampala University 08/04/2013 By: Ahmed Qaalib Ismail DECLARATION I, Ahmed Qaalib Ismail, declare that this research report is my original work. It has not been submitted to any other university or higherRead MoreLala3593 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe General Ledger has been the basic bookkeeping tool of double-entry accounting since the Green Eyeshade days. It records financial transactions as both Credits and Debits in balance sheets, which before the advent of software were bound together in huge volumes like something out of a Dickens novel. BS1 General Ledger from Davis Business Systems brings the General Ledger up to cyber speed with a variety of easy-to-use accounting tools that can track budgets and financial data and generate incomeRead MoreCommunication Risks in Accounting Information System in the Commercial Banks of Pakistan2996 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe Communication risk between computer unit and internal control unit and its impact on the efficiency of Accounting Information System in the Commercial Banks of Pakistan INTRODUCTION: The modern world introduces new and new technology day by day, more and more innovation and invention in computer related technology. It have more effects in computerize accounting information system in banking sector of Pakistan by providing unique and quality services to their customers by using cutting-edge technologyRead More Laptops vs. Desktops Essay1769 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesLaptops vs. Desktops Which is the better computer? Laptops vs. Desktops The history of computers begins about 2000 years ago, starting with what was known as the abacus, a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them. From there, computers grew. Computers as most would think of them began in 1936 and grew from there. First there was the Z models Ã¢â¬â Z1 (the first binary computer, Z2 (the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer), Z3 (the first electronicRead MoreSchool Billing System3634 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesadopt modern technology in order to survive and compete with markets demands. Also, through the use of this technology, different transactions and processing systems have become computerized for greater ease and accuracy. Likewise, through technology, information is easily obtained hence, people tend to rely less in manual operations. Hypothesis We have an admin office that needs to simplify the application process; a CashierÃ¢â¬â¢s office that needs to make billing reconciliation easier; and a studentRead MorePoultry Farm11976 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pagesand vaccinations, customers department and administration point where the login eligibility of any system to use the system. At the present, the farm system is paper based, constituting the manual file keeping and the use of manual record books. The farm employs a number of employees who perform the manual record work within the organization. The time spent in the access of the records is a very precious resource and hence it will be very important if the information could be quickly retrieved withRead MoreFghgfhgfh3698 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesCourse Ã¢â¬âIII (LC) Ã¢â¬â Tamil*/Other Language +# 6 6 5 4 5 2 2 3 3 5 4 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 IV IV English Language Course Ã¢â¬âIII (ELC) Core Course IV Financial Accounting Core Course V Practical Auditing Allied Course IV Computer Applications in Business Skill Based Elective Ã¢â¬â I Non-Major Elective Ã¢â¬â I for those who studied Tamil under Part I a) Basic Tamil for other language students b) Special Tamil for those who
Question: Discuss Medbox's overall financial reporting and financial position.? Answer: Overall financial reporting and financial position analysis of Medbox The quarterly financial statement of Medbox shows that the gross profit levels of the company are negative and hence the gross profit ratios are negative. The present GP ratio for September 30th 2014 is around (5.91) which suggests that the company lacks financial profitability. (Refer to appendix 1) This also suggests that Medbox has no financial capability to pay for operating expenses like salaries, selling and marketing, research and development and general administrative expenses. The company shows consistently negative net incomes because despite the low gross margin ratios the company has incurred high operating expenses and low revenues that have led to loss from the operations. The return on assets ratio is around (0.36) which is also negative suggesting that the company is not able to manage its assets effectively to yield the greater amounts of income (Leach, 2010). (Refer to appendix 3) The analysis of the balance sheet shows a number of unusual items like derivative liability, which increase the amount of liability of the company. The investments of the company are also nil in 2014 and 2012 showing low amount of assets. Hence from the analysis of the balance sheet it can be confirmed that the company has a low liquidity position. The low liquidity position and the negative revenue shows that the company is not in a condition to pay short or long term debts and is advisable to increase the sales of the medicine storage devices in order to attain a stable financial position (Skov Jensen, 2011). References Leach, R. (2010).Ratios made simple. Petersfield, Hampshire: Harriman House. Skov Jensen, H. (2011).Recommendations financial ratios 2010. Copenhagen: The Danish Society of Financial Analysts.
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau Essay Author Albert RaboteauÃ¢â¬â¢s book will find a place in any American religious history canon. Raboteau, being an African American himself, was able to bring out the compassion and earnestness in his cause Ã¢â¬â which is to bring to light the plight and travails of enslaved Black Americans from a religious perspective. The book is written in such a tone that it opens more profound levels of understanding and appreciation for the reader. In this way, the book is a piece of art as well as a document of history. The book succeeds in taking the reader to the original setting and milieu that forms its background. More importantly, the book adopts simple prose style that appeals to readers from all walks of life. The rest of the essay will be a summary of the central points in the book. The book takes the form of RaboteauÃ¢â¬â¢s responses to some of the reactions he had experienced over the years. In line with his literary mentor Sydney AhlstromÃ¢â¬â¢s anticipation, the revival of African-American history as a field of inquiry in its own right also helped rejuvenate the allied subject of religion and history with respect to America. This is also made necessary by the fact that any attempt to trace African-American history is inevitably linked to the associated religious traditions, and likewise, Ã¢â¬Å"the religious history of America cannot be told adequately without incorporation of the African-American experienceÃ¢â¬ . RaboteauÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative gives vent to the suppressed voices of African Americans of the past, quite reminiscent of some of the narrative techniques employed by African American novelists of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. This also serves as the Ã¢â¬Å"central theme in other liberation theologiesÃ¢â¬ , and applies in significant ways to secular as well as religious history, leading up to contemporary practices. Alongside the expression of black American sentiments, the book also notes the parallel historical events in the American continent. The fact that most of the African American immigration to America has been un-volitional is recognized through out the text. We will write a custom essay sample on Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Slave Religion by Albert J. Raboteau specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In an attempt to explicate the true implications of Ã¢â¬Å"slave cultureÃ¢â¬ , the author is compelled to touch upon the political aspects of religion and argues in favor of their necessity. In other words, this Ã¢â¬Å"creative means of continuationÃ¢â¬ of African cultural influences, frequently intertwined with European and Judeo-Christian origins, provides a sense of belonging and identity to the community, while leaving aside other aspects of slavery. The book essentially provides the necessary foundation for the oppressed masses to rebel against authority and to free themselves from the repressive mental shackles of slavery. The author claims that the basic motivation for writing this book Ã¢â¬Å"was the passing-on of unwritten traditions, oral traditions no longer heardÃ¢â¬ . Also, he intends to invoke interest in the subject through conventional methodology to educate the reader. This, Raboteau believes, is the spiritual effort of contemplating about Ã¢â¬Å"a tradition that stands a continuing challenge to the complacency exhibited by most of ChristianityÃ¢â¬ . In respect of the task of documenting long-standing traditions, the book is quite good. The author includes hymns and songs, and anecdotes and verses, historical narratives as well as scholarly interpretations of various sources for the documentation of this little studied aspect of American religious history. Raboteau incorporates in the text extracts from native African languages in addition to adaptations by black Americans already living in the Americas. The author also depicts in depth several practices and customs, including the Ã¢â¬Å"ring shout and belief structuresÃ¢â¬ . For instance, the preservation of aspects of African deities and gods was usually more pronounced in the South American continent when compared to the predominantly Protestant North America. Raboteau also gives different rationales for it, which takes into consideration Ã¢â¬Å"the greater possibility of syncretism and cross-identification of practicesÃ¢â¬ . Raboteau notes that, after a while, most of the American slaves were Ã¢â¬Å"native-bornÃ¢â¬ , while elsewhere in the world (Caribbean and Latin American regions), there was a steady and gradual influx of immigrants from the African continent. Raboteau also delves into some of the contradictions inherent in American Christianity which uses religious conversion as a justification to enslave other people. In recent times such practices are very rare, but the primary reason for allowing the enslavement of certain communities was to make them subordinate to the faith of convenience (which in the case of African Americans was Christianity). Furthermore, there was this conception that Ã¢â¬Å"there were not only spiritual benefits to the slaves, but also the contact of the slaves with Western civilization was by itself a better state than that in which the people had lived as free personsÃ¢â¬ . There were hindrances for a short while in allowing slaves to convert to Christianity, for it would allow them to expect just, fair and equal treatment. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of the governing institutions and the way the Ã¢â¬Å"invisible institutionÃ¢â¬ is run is quite interesting. The public churches of the day were always surrounded by controversies as a result of their exclusive nature. The Ã¢â¬Ëinvisible institutionÃ¢â¬â¢, as the author refers to it, Ã¢â¬Å"existed often as a forbidden aspectÃ¢â¬ . African American slaves were allowed to participate in both black churches (the congregations of which also contained members of other racial and ethnic minorities). According to Raboteau, these congregations usually see more number of slaves, many of whom risk punishment when they join other worshippers in secluded locations. Close to the end of the Civil War, the culture of slavery prevailing in America was to a great extent associated with Christianity, especially in the southern states. The author asserts that Ã¢â¬Å"the secular/sacred clash often present in the modern-day culture was present even in the slave cabins, where secular music that provided antecedents to rhythm and blues would sometimes compete with the more religious-oriented calls to worshipÃ¢â¬ . The only criticism that could be attributed to Raboteau is it emphasis on Christianity alone, while not taking into consideration other religions. Also, the author can also be criticized for not representing the viewpoints of women, especially given their significance in Ã¢â¬Å"the preservation of slave culture and religionÃ¢â¬ . Although these criticism in them donÃ¢â¬â¢t take away the many merits of the book, more revisionist history is required in this field before a complete picture of this controversial aspect of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s past is understood properly. In the final analysis, the book is a landmark in the quest for the true history of American minorities in general and African American Christians in particular. In this sense, it is one of the most important pieces of literature, pertaining to the political, religious and sociological evolution of America.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
General Electric GlaxoSmithKline Changes in Technology That GE Has Undertaken in Product and Process General Electric (GE) built Local Growth Teams (LGT), which was a process change of the manufacturing technology that the company has always used. The new process shifts the focus of production to where the company has a high potential of selling its commodities.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on General Electric GlaxoSmithKline specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, LGT allows GE to build latest offerings, which are separate from the items that are already in its inventory. Previously, all subsidiaries of GE worked as part of the whole company; however, fresh subsidiaries under the LGT structure operate as new companies. Therefore, their interaction within the organization occurs as a form of partnership enabling them to obtain necessary resources when needed, and still maintain their autonomy for operation (White and Bruton 2-3). The com pany also introduced the concept of ecomagination. This was another method innovation in the use of technology. It merged the generation of energy and the process of manufacturing vehicles that use the spawned energy. The innovative process of production gave general electric the ability to create new opportunities, which increased its products value and their market demand (White and Bruton 4). GE also undertook product innovation changes. In the first case, the company used a system-integration approach for existing products to improve them and increase their market share. While developing LGT structures, GE used applied research methods to utilize existing knowledge, about the products in its inventory to develop first-hand products.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The up to date products by LGT improve the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s market position in emerging countrie s that lack a sustainable market for its traditional products. Therefore, the above example illustrates the use of systems integration as a type of innovation. For example, the company applies the same basic research that developed ultrasound machines technology to develop portable ultrasound-machines in India and China. The firm also re-engineered its work progression. Instead of controlling the processes of LGT from once central location, GE allowed all LGT to operate independently and consolidate their functions as individual companies. This ensured that the organization was deleting all unnecessary hindrances in management levels and work. The above innovation was an example of using applied technology to create altered merchandises. The company introduced new-fangled products, which lead to new opportunities in emerging markets. At the same time, the company introduced the modern process of researching and manufacturing that concentrate of its high-growth market. Combination of Technology and Management General Electric has made changes to its organization, which gives it a market advantage when using technology. The firm altered its structure where necessary like in the case of LGT. It also reviewed its personnel policies and leadership. The firm created local teams that understand the needs and challenges of specific markets. This allowed the company to come up with products that are relevant and cost-effective in their respective markets.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on General Electric GlaxoSmithKline specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization holds patents to various technologies and allows its local growth teams to exploit the patents and come up with new products. To achieve this objective, the firm reorganized its management roles and objectives to realign them with technology. The new orientation implied that policy and leadership bend towards a technology that fit t he business the company wants to grow in (White and Bruton 4). Strategic Concerns for GE in Future As General Electric extends its global presence, it should also seek to develop new customer relationships in its existing markets. The company should not take for granted markets where its strategies are already doing well. Technological innovations often lead to the loss of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage. For example, fresh technology might render a product obsolete or cut its production costs and force companies to reduce their prices or face the wrath of recent entrants to the market. So while GE is shifting its power to where the growth is, it should also look at existing markets that are not growing but are under threat of disruption by technology. As GE expands its manufacturing capabilities in new markets, it should also look at its capabilities more closely. Its competitors will soon copy its innovative processes of fabrication and come up with competitive outputs. T he company must ensure that the introduction of toned-down alternative products, in unknown markets, does not make it appear to be neglecting the demands, of the market. Otherwise, it might suffer a backlash on its products as consumers seek to fulfil their needs with better products from competitors. As the firm realizes high returns in new markets, it should not become a victim by defending its market share when other firms introduced superior products.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technology and Product Changes to Monitor The firm should monitor the technologies that alter the demand of its products or render them obsolete. It should also monitor processes that tear down geographical boundaries or market barriers. These processes will either remove its competitive advantage of exclusivity or allow it to tap fresh value-creating ideas. It should look at processes that allow existing technologies to serve additional purposes, and lead to new commodities (Tidd, Pavitt and Bessant 17-21). Marketing and Technology Balance General Electric maintained a balance of its marketing efforts and technology by managing its technology and innovation as the core of its production. The company used technology to produce products of distinctive capabilities and costs. Having varied versions of the same product allowed the company to serve a wider market, including fewer traditional areas. The company also followed other technology developments within the industry but leveraged its expertise and network to create new products that eventually earn it a significant market share. GE bought technology when it realized that the development of its own technology would take time or was expensive. The firm bought other firms that already had the technology it was eyeing, or the marketing capabilities that increased its market share (White and Bruton 2-4). Special Planning Needs for GSK GSK needs to plan how to diversify its global business while it continues to simplify the operating model of the firm. The firms need to plan how to retain its competitiveness of producing new products. Therefore, it needs to reorganize its research and development area to make them more efficient. The firm needs to build an internal innovation foundation, which will support innovation. It needs processes that allow knowledge to transfer among its eight broad areas of focus. As it generates ideas and products, the firm also needs to manage them at any given time. Thus, the firm req uires an efficient evaluation process. During the planning phase, GSK needs to consider its technology and innovation strategy in relation to its dominant competitive position. It needs to look at how processes, operations and systems are influencing its capabilities. Thereafter, it should examine ways to alter its organization structure to take advantage of the knowledge for internal innovation. The company has to coordinate its operations globally to ensure the outputs for customers, stakeholders and competitors become valuable data for processing in its RD areas, which will strengthen its competitive position. Industry Trends for Consideration GSK should look at entrant companies in the eight market areas that make up its focus. The mint companies increase the competition for the existing market share and may come with new technologies, which disrupt the dominant position of GSK. In addition to checking for newcomers, the company should also observe how existent products are infl uencing the economic inefficiency that exists within the industry. When all inefficiencies cease to exist, it will no longer be profitable, for the firm to continue innovating in the particular focus area (Zahra and Ali 105-106). The firm should look at epidemic trends of neglected diseases that form the core of its research focus. The trends assist the firm to plan on the scale of resources that it should commit. The trends also provide information that might be replicable in the development of drugs for similar diseases. Above all, the company should monitor breakthroughs in treatment technologies and medical combinations. Up to date processes and products will allow the firm to introduce modern ways of using their existing technology or come up with fresh products. GSK can be innovative enough to beat its competitors in the race of introducing new products. However, the firm also needs strong retail presence to sell and grow its market share. Therefore, the company should monitor mergers and acquisitions within the production channel. It should also keenly follow the changing preferences of retailers as state requirements influenced them in their respective countries. Lastly, GSK should monitor regulatory conditions that govern the administration of health care. Often, official directives lead to the abandonment of a product in favour of another. In other cases, users develop the resistance to a specific combination of medication and require new types. The firm should look at medication resistant trends. Critical Implementation Issues The allocation of over 10 per cent of revenues on research and development was critical to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s development of high mid-size products. The firm needed to support its innovation and marketing efforts an appropriate financial budget to make it sustainable (Betz 51). If it had not allocated funds to develop mid-size products, then it would be exposing its strategic advantage when its successful products become obs olete. Therefore, the allocation of ten per cent of revenues, on the product, research was important in the firms diversification strategy (White and Bruton 71). Without the research and development of mid-size products, the firm would fail on its strategy of delivering more products of value. Having a constant stream of new products ensures that the firm is competitive and profitable. If it instead concentrated on a few big-size products, then it would succumb to cyclic periods of good and bad performance (Betz 51). The quest for the market leadership position in the pharmaceutical industry obliges firms to remain innovative even when they are enjoying the market dominance. Besides, new diseases and their resistance are always emerging; therefore, it is paramount that the firm allocates substantial revenue to research and development. Another critical implementation issue is the return on innovation policy. Without a criterion for justifying the development of a specific product, t he firm would waste resources on areas that do not meet its expectations. For a company generating so many products in a particular period, proper control of its inventory is important to ensure that the production resources do not go to waste (White and Bruton 72-73). Influence of Changes Made in 2008 The changes made in 2008 that created Discovery Performance Units will accelerate the implementation of the firms critical issue of competitive advantage. For example, in line with the research and development of mid-size products, DPU will reduce the organizational inefficiency associated with decision-making in large organizations. In addition, concentration on particular focus areas by the DPU will enable GSK to develop better quality products and reduce research mistakes that come with diverse interests. Funding guarantees for DPU also give them a security of tenure, which allows them to plan and implement research and development calendars without financial interruptions. The eli mination of short-term discontinuances will ensure that GSK achieve its goal of providing the best science and products to consumers. The 2008 restructuring allows the firm to continue benefiting from innovations and continue developing capacities for more novelties in the future (White and Bruton 73). After the new introductions of 2008, project management at GSK has become more decentralized. The dispersion makes the firm more adaptable to emerging trends within the industry. It allows the research to focus on different technologies without compromising the firms already dominant position in specific products. Special Evaluation Needs GSK needs to determine whether the innovations coming from its research labs, and the subsequent product developments, will be successful, in the market. The firm has to know how many products it intends to produce over a given period and offer them in the marketplace. It also needs to define the quantity of each product line. The company needs to lo ok further than sales and profits when it evaluates its long-term strategy concerns. The evaluation should focus on how its products are relating to their substitutes, in the market. GSK already has strategies for its business and needs to evaluate their effectiveness and relevance in the industry. The corporation has to know if the growth of a diversified global business contributed to its dominant position. Secondly, its strategy of delivering products of more value should be evaluated against the need for making profits. Lastly, it should evaluate its efficiency strategy to see if there are additional avenues for reducing costs or increasing value. The use of an internal innovation strategy has the most influence on how well GSK evaluates its progress. The cross-fertilization of ideas encouraged by the company is also crucial for knowledge transfer with aids decision-making within the firm. The sharing of information among departments assisted the company to reorganize its operat ions in 2008. It will continue to influence the evaluation of progress within the firm. Control Systems for GSK GSK obtains much of its competitive advantage from its human capital. Therefore, it needs human-resource system to control the exploitation of human capital (Verburg, Ortt and Dicke 54). The system would assist the firm to control the compliance of its employees and increase their commitment to its goals. The company also needs a balanced scorecard system to increase the efficiency of inter and intradepartmental transactions and services (Sisaye 37). The company has many product lines and needs a just-in-time technology (JIT) system. The system will reduce transaction costs and other costs that arise from the production, distribution and sales processes. As it continues to develop products from preventing disease, the company also needs to prevent its operations from causing harm to its environment. An environment system, which reports the organizations impact on its ecolo gy, will assist it to create more value without violating environmental laws of specific countries. Betz, Frederick. Managing Technological Innovation: Competitive Advantage from Change. 2nd ed. Hoboken: John Wiley Sons, 2003. Print. Sisaye, Seleshi. The Ecology of Management Accounting and Control Systems. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. Print. Tidd, Joseph, Keith Pavitt and John Bessant. Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change. West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, 2005. Print. Verburg, Robert, Roland Ortt and Wilhelmina Margaretha Dicke, Managing Technology and Innovation: An Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print. White, Margaret A and Garry D Bruton. The Management of Technology and Innovation: A Strategic Approach. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print. Zahra, Shaker A and Abbas Ali, The Impact of Innovation and Technology in The Global Marketplace. New York: International Business Press, 1994. Print.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Reflection on the Use of Technology in Education in the UAE - Essay Example This essay stresses that every year, the country has reported a significant increase in the number of students enrolling for different courses in the institutions of learning. Eventually, the number of instructors has decreased below the recommended student: teacher ratio. At the same time, many institutions of learning have made education a form of making profits by admitting as many students as possible. The higher the number of students in institutions of learning, the lower is the capability of the lecturers to deliver to all the students. The result has been the use of different technologies in education. This paper makes a conclusion that the success of the use of technology in teaching and learning heavily depends on the perceptions and attitudes of both the educators and the students. The perception has been primarily positive following the digital technology campaign and the need for technology literacy in schools. Institutions that do not implement technology learning in the UAE are seen as outdated and ones that do not instill the required skills to their students. In the earlier years, the use of technology in education in the UAE was a debatable topic that attracted varying opinions. Many people in the country discussed the advantages and disadvantages of using technology in education. However, as many institutions started adopting the use of technology, its benefits now seem to outweigh its shortcomings. Education has taken a new dimension and meaning with the use of technology.